Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) refers to a genetic disease that leads to the formation of cluster of cysts in kidneys. Numerous small and large cysts make the kidneys to enlarge and function inadequately.

These cysts are noncancerous round sacs filled with fluid. The cysts vary in size and can grow very large. If cysts are left untreated it can damage the kidneys.

Depending upon the mode of inheritance, polycystic kidney disease is of two types: autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease causes pain, urinary tract infection, stones in kidneys, high blood pressure and mostly leads to kidney failure.

 Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease is diagnosed immediately after childbirth or during pregnancy and leads to disorders of respiratory system and malfunctioning of liver.

Polycystic kidney disease poses risk of cyst formation in liver and high blood pressure may adversely affect blood vessels of brain and heart.

Polycystic kidney disease

Symptoms

High blood pressure

Back pain

Severe headache

A feeling of fullness

Increased size of  the stomach

Blood in your urine

Kidney stones

Prone to urinary tract infections

Diagnosis And Treatment

Polycystic kidney disease is diagnosed with certain blood tests and procedure which includes ultrasound, CT scan and MRI scan that can detect the size and number of cysts in the kidneys.

Treatment of the disease depends on its type and level of severity. Treatment of dominant polycystic kidney disease includes painkillers, medication to regulate the blood pressure and kidney transplant in case of kidney failure. Children affected with recessive polycystic kidney disease need a kidney transplant in case of excess enlargement of kidneys. They are given nutritional therapy to restore normal growth.

 

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