First aid means immediate care you should provide when a person is injured or ill, until you start the patient on full medical treatment. Proper first aid and emergency care are very crucial in saving lives and one should be aware of first aid basics, if they come across emergency situations.

The following are standard first aid instructions while dealing with various conditions.

Fainting

•    Fainting also called syncope is a sudden, brief loss of consciousness and posture caused by decreased blood flow to the brain. Many different conditions can cause fainting.

•    It is self-limited with an inability to maintain postural tone with spontaneous recovery

•    Fainting can happen at any time and multiple things need to be considered like low sugar, low BP, vasovagal syncope, following absence seizures and cardiac syncope.

Do’s

1.    The patient should be kept in a very well curated space

2.    Laydown the victim on a flat surface

3.    Check the blood sugar and blood pressure if possible.

4.    If spontaneous recovery doesn’t happen, please rush to the nearest hospital or call emergency assistance.

5.    Check for any external injuries.

Don’ts

1.    Don’t give any liquids as the victim can aspirate.

2.    If the patient is breathing and pulse is felt, don’t give chest compression (CPR).

3.    Never take any fainting for granted and it should be evaluated completely as it may be because of any cardiac or neurological abnormality too.

4.    Don’t take self-medication without doctor’s consultation.

Nose Bleeding

Nosebleeds are common. They may be scary, but they rarely indicate a serious medical problem. The nose contains many blood vessels, which are located close to the surface in the front and back of the nose. They’re very fragile and bleed easily. Nosebleeds are common in adults and children between the ages of 3 and 10.

There are two kinds of nosebleeds. An anterior nosebleed occurs when the blood vessels in the front of the nose break and bleed. A posterior nosebleed occurs in the back or the deepest part of the nose. In this case, blood flows down the back of the throat. Posterior nosebleeds can be dangerous.

Quick Tips

•    Once you see a person is bleeding apply an ice pack over the nose.

•    Never cough or sneeze during the bleeding.

•    Keep the neck flex and allow blood to flow out of the nose.

•    Hurry to the nearest hospital as early as possible.

What To Expect?

•    Nasal bleed can be fresh bleed or clots

•    In the case of trauma, fracture nasal bone is also expected.

•    Hypertension patient may have spontaneous bleed with raised blood pressure.

•    You may develop some pain over the nose and the severity depends upon the injury.

•    Usually, nasal bleeds should be arrested immediately. Rush to the nearest hospital.

•    Nosebleeds are common and not usually serious. Most are anterior nosebleeds and can often be treated at home. These usually occur suddenly and don’t last long. They result from many causes, especially dry air and repeated scratching or picking of the nose. If you can’t stop the bleeding from your anterior nosebleed, you should call your doctor immediately.

•    In case of trauma or injury, it can be localized trauma to the nasal bone or nasal cartridge or it can be a bleed inside the cranium or skull which comes through the nose. (Always suspect a head injury if the patient has nasal bleed following trauma).

When To Consult?

•    Most nosebleeds don’t require medical attention. However, you should seek medical attention if your nosebleed lasts longer than 20 minutes, or if it occurs after an injury. This may be a sign of a posterior nosebleed, which is more serious.

•    Injuries that might cause a nosebleed include a fall, a car accident, or a punch in the face. Nosebleeds that occur after an injury may indicate a broken nose, skull fracture, or internal bleeding.

Rabies

Rabies is one of the oldest recognized diseases affecting humans and one of the most important zoonotic diseases in India. In India, about 15 million people are bitten by animals, mostly dogs, every year and need postexposure prophylaxis.

Quick Tips

1.    Calm the victim

2.    Wash the wound with soap and warm water.

3.    Gently press a clean cloth over the wound to stop the flow of blood

4.    Apply an antibacterial ointment to the wound.

5.    In case of a dog bite or scratch, it should be taken seriously if the skin is infected.

6.    If your skin was scratched, wash the area with warm soap water and gently press on the wound to promote a small amount of bleeding. This will help flush out germs.

7.    The patient should be seen by a doctor within 24 hours of a dog bite.

8.    If the wound is bleeding, you can apply ice packs.

9.    Never take any dog bite for granted, even if the dog is vaccinated.

What To Expect?

1.    You may get Rabies if it’s not treated on time.

2.    Dog bite doesn’t lead to any allergic conditions.

3.    All dog bite wounds, even minor ones, should be monitored for signs of infection until they’re completely healed.

4.    You may experience the following symptoms -weakness, headache, fever, depression, insomnia and fatigue.

When To Consult A Doctor:

1.    If the wound gets worse, if you feel pain, or develop a fever, see a doctor immediately.

2.    Doesn’t stop bleeding

3.    Exposes bone, tendons, or muscle

4.    Causes loss of function, such as an inability to bend fingers

5.    Injured area looks red, swollen, or inflamed

6.    Leaks pus or fluid

7.    If dog bite is not treated properly you may get the following symptoms only after 50 days symptoms

8.    Paralysis of bit & limp/hydrophobia/ even can lead to coma

Treatment Options:

1.    Anti-Rabies vaccine 5 doses are required for treatment of dog bite in the below-mentioned intervals

0 days – 3 days – 7 days – 14 days – 28 days

2.    Anti-Rabies immunoglobulin, If the wound is deep and some tissue is lost.