Diabetic nephropathy is a condition where the kidneys are affected due to severe diabetic conditions. It affects people with both, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and is divided into five stages of deterioration. In the United States, approximately 40% of people with diabetes develop diabetic nephropathy, whilst approximately 20% of all diabetic patients suffer from diabetic nephropathy. It is an advanced level diabetic condition and also called end-stage renal disease or ESRD. Diabetes is responsible for 30-40% of all end-stage renal disease (ESRD) cases globally.
Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease and kidney failure and may even cause premature death. Treatment procedures include haemodialysis and kidney transplantation. Diabetic nephropathy also leads to the following:
- Cardiovascular morbidity and other major long-term health complications
- Poor blood pressure contro
- Oedema of feet, ankles, hands or eyes
- Increased urination
- Loss of appetite
- Nausea and vomiting
- Persistent itching
Diabetic nephropathy can also cause hyperkalaemia that is the sudden increase in potassium levels in the blood. It can damage the blood vessels of the retina that is the diabetic retinopathy. Other conditions like anemia, foot ulcers, erectile dysfunction, and diarrhea can be experienced. It causes a burden on national health care budgets for many countries. Thus, the dangers of diabetic nephropathy can deteriorate the physiopathology of the patient.