Bone metastasis occurs due to the spreading of cancer cells to the bone tissue and it happens in the advanced stages of cancer.
Bone cancers are mostly associated with breast, prostate, lung, kidney, and thyroid. Bone metastasis mainly occurs in the spine, thigh, and pelvic regions of the body.
Bone metastasis occurs when the tumour cells from the site of origin breakdown and spread to bones. These cells then begin to multiply and damage the bones. Lymphoma and multiple myeloma are also associated with risk factors for bone cancer.
In some cases, bone metastasis may appear with no signs. However, the symptoms include, pain in bones, broken bones, due to weakening from metastasis, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting and increased thirst, increased levels of calcium in the blood, urinary tract issues, troubled bowel movements.
If the cancer is in spine, it may cause compression and pressure on the spinal cord, leading to weakness, numbness, and paralysis.
Most of the bone metastasis cases are incurable, however, there are a few treatment options that may help in reliving the existing symptoms.
The type of treatment varies depends on the site of primary cancer. Factors like damage to bones, or bones affected due to the spread of cancer and severity, and physical health of an individual are also considered in the treatment plan and type of treatment to be provided.
Radiation therapies, chemotherapy, ablation, surgery, radiopharmaceuticals, immunotherapy etc. can help in reducing the signs of bone metastasis, if detected at an early stage.