Infectious diseases also known as transmissible diseases or communicable diseases, it is the invasion of disease-causing agents, their multiplication and the generation of toxins in the host. Any infectious disease is an ailment developed from an infection caused by germs. Infections are generally caused by pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, fungus and parasites.
Microorganism, germs are found everywhere in the air, soil and water and generally survive in and on our bodies, however, many microorganisms are harmless or even helpful, but under certain extreme conditions, some organism causes disease.
There are several ways that a person can get infectious diseases:
Infections can be transmitted via direct contact with a sick person by touching, sneezing, coughing and sexual contact.
Pregnant women may also transmit microbes that can cause infectious diseases to the unborn baby. The germs are transmitted via the placenta or breast milk and even via the vagina to the newborn during birth.
Through insects or animal bites. When bitten or scratched by an infected animal and even your pet can make you sick which can be fatal.
When a person touches or handles surfaces contaminated by a sick person.
Infections can be transmitted by taking contaminated food or water, this way there is a high risk of infections spreading to many people. One common bacterium is E. coli which spreads via undercooked meat or unpasteurized fruit juices.
Infectious diseases are caused by four major types of microbes including:
These are single-celled organism which can multiply rapidly, which causes illnesses like strep throat, UTI and tuberculosis.
These are tiny cells that can not only invade the body and multiply but also has the potential to kill, damage or change the cells making you sick. There is a magnitude of viral diseases ranging from the common cold to AIDS. Also Read: World AIDS Day 2019: All You Need To Know About HIV
These are primitive plant-like organisms such as mushroom, mold and yeast. Fungal infections are common in the skin like ringworm and athletes’ foot and other fungi can affect the lungs or the nervous system. Also Read: Athlete's Foot Disease: Causes, Symptoms And Treatment
These are plants or animals that survive by living on or in other living organisms, malaria is an infection caused by the tiny parasite by the bite of a mosquito.
Every type of infectious disease as one or more significant symptoms, general signs and symptoms of common infectious diseases include;
Diagnosis And Treatment
The doctors would go for a complete examination and evaluate the patients, recommend certain blood tests, urine tests and culture, throat swabs, stool sample and spinal tap test to determine the cause of infections.
Imaging scans such as X-rays, tomography and MRI magnetic resonance imaging are suggested to rule out any other conditions that may be causing the symptoms.
A biopsy is recommended to determine any growth of organs in the tissue that may be the cause of a certain type of pneumonia.
The treatment depends upon diagnosing the type of microorganism that is causing the diseases. Doctors generally recommend prescription medications including antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals and antiparasitics.
Follow certain precautionary measures to reduce the risk of infectious diseases which include:
- Wash hands regularly before and after handling food, eating and using the toilet.
- Avoid touching eyes, nose and mouth with your hands as those are the most common ways, where germs invade our body.
- Get vaccinated to lessen the chance of contracting many infectious diseases.
- Stay at home if unwell and avoid unnecessary travel
- Avoid sharing personal belongings and utensils
- Practice safe sex -use condoms if any of the partners have a high risk of infections