Gum problems are mostly caused due to bacterial growth in your mouth. Gingivitis is the most common gum problem that leads to gum inflammation. Gums become red, swollen and bleed during brushing. Untreated severe gingivitis leads to periodontitis.

The person affected with periodontitis experiences inflammation of gum and infection in gum tissues. Severe periodontitis leads to loss of jawbone. Gum recession is when the sides of the gum tissue adjacent to the teeth wears off or exposing the root of the tooth. The exposed roots are susceptible to infections and decay. Periodontal abscess refers to the gum problem associated with pus filled blister formation in gums which causes severe pain and swelling in gums.

Gum problems are caused due to unhygienic oral habits like tobacco chewing, smoking and genetic predisposition. Hormonal changes in females during pregnancy, puberty and menopause also makes gum sensitive for bacterial infection. Medical conditions like diabetes, cancer and AIDS weaken the immune system and make the gums more prone to gum diseases.

Gum disease: causes and symptoms


  • Gums that bleed during brushing
  • Red, inflamed, swollen or tender gums
  • Formation of gap between gums and teeth
  • Bad breath or bad taste in the mouth
  • Receding gums
  • Loose or shifting teeth

Diagnosis And Treatment

During routine dental examination dentist look out for gum bleeding, selling, teeth sensitivity, pocket depth and jaw bone structure to diagnose gum disease.

Treatment of gum diseases aims to reduce the gum inflammation and risk of infection. Scraping and root planing are recommended to remove the plaque present under gums. However, gum diseases can be prevented by adopting healthy oral hygiene habits. Dental cleaning to remove the plaques is one of the most effective preventive measures for gum problems.