GLP-1 receptor agonists, also known as the incretin mimetics, have a glucose-dependent effect on pancreatic secretion of insulin and glucagon. There are two types of drug classes; glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors; for treating type-2 diabetes. They have glucose-dependent action on insulin and glucagon secretion, which improve glycemic management, decrease the risk of hypoglycemia and compose an outstanding means for the management of type 2 diabetes.
GLP-1 receptor agonists show a distinctive and innovative method for the treatment of diabetes due to advantages other than glucose control, like clinically relevant weight loss, blood pressure control, cholesterol levels management, and preserving beta-cell function. They imitate the effects of the incretin hormone GLP-1, which is secreted from the intestine responding to food ingestion. Their effects comprise of increasing insulin secretion, lowering glucagon release, increasing satiety, and slowing gastric emptying. Clinical research studies have found GLP-1 to be beneficial in losing weight, when utilized in combination with diet and exercise. Furthermore, patients with type 2 diabetes have a higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and often have co-morbidities, including obesity, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia.
Exenatide, empagliflozin, liraglutide, albiglutide, dulaglutide, lixisenatide, semaglutide, and taspoglutide; are some of the most common and economic GLP-1 based drugs in India. Therefore, the ideal means to manage type 2 diabetes should have positive effects on weight, blood pressure, and lipids. GLP-1 receptor agonists thus, have an advantageous effect in the treatment of type-2 diabetes.