WHAT IS PHYCOCYANIN?Phycocyanin is a pigment-protein complex from the light-harvesting phycobiliprotein family, along with allophycocyanin and phycoerythrin. It is an accessory pigment to chlorophyll. All phycobiliproteins are water-soluble, so they cannot exist within the membrane like carotenoids can. Instead, phycobiliproteins aggregate to form clusters that adhere to the membrane called phycobilisomes. Phycocyanin is a characteristic light blue color, absorbing orange and red light. Phycocyanins are found in Cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae).Phycocyanin is from the Greek phyco meaning “algae” and cyanin is from the English word “cyan", which conventionally means a shade of blue-green (close to "aqua") and is derived from the Greek “kyanos" which means a somewhat different color: "dark blue". The product phycocyanin, produced by Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Spirulina.WHAT IS CURCUMIN?Curcumin (/'k?rkju?m?n/, diferuloylmethane) is a bright yellow chemical produced by some plants. It is the principal curcuminoid of turmeric (Curcuma longa), a member of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae). It is sold as an herbal supplement, cosmetics ingredient, food flavoring, and food coloring. As a food additive, its E number is E100.It was isolated in 1815 when Vogel and Pelletier reported the isolation of a "yellow coloring-matter" from the rhizomes of turmeric and named it curcumin. Although curcumin has been used historically since thousands of years in Indian Ayurvedic medicine.ANTI-HIV EFFECTS OF PHYCOMAXMicronutrient deficiencies occur early in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections they have reverse effects on the nutritional status. The diet supplementation with a natural nutraceutical rich in proteins and micronutrient like Spirulina platensis Extract, may be effective and efficient in delaying HIV disease progression by frequently reported improvement in immune response.A prospective single-blind, randomized, multicenter study conducted on 320 HIV-1 ARV-naïve participants for 12 months. Participants received either S. platensis supplementation and standard care or standard care and local balanced diet without S. platenis. Selected hematological and biochemical as well as CD4 count cells, viral load copies were assessed at three separate times.Among the 169 ART-naïve participants enrolled in the study, the female was mostly represented (67.1 %). The significant increase of CD4 count cells (596.32–614.92 cells count) and significant decrease of viral load levels (74.7 × 103–30.87 × 103 copies/mL) of the patients who received a supplementation of S. platensis was found after 6 months of treatment. Haemoglobin level was also significantly higher in the same group while the fasting blood glucose concentration decreased after 12 months compared to control.A daily supplementation with S. platensis to diet combined with a reasonable balanced diet has significantly increased the CD4 cells and reduced the viral load after 6 months. Further studies are recommended among a large specific group of people infected by the HIV in order to investigate the mechanisms involved on the effect of S. platensis on immune system.Soon after the discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the causative agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in 1984, heparin and other sulfated polysaccharides were found to be potential inhibitors of HIV-1 replication in cell culture. As a potent anti-HIV drug candidate, sulfated polysaccharides had several promising advantages, including their ability to block HIV replication in cell culture at rather low concentrations (0.1–0.01 µg/mL) without observable side-effects or cytotoxicity to the host cells at concentrations of up to 2.5 mg/mL. They could also inhibit the cytopathic effect of HIV, and prevent HIV-induced giant cell (syncytium) formation.As mentioned above, this important component of Spirulina, sulfated polysaccharides consists of rhamnose, ribose, mannose, fructose, galactose, xylose, glucose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, sulfate, and calcium. Ca-SP inhibits the replication of various enveloped viruses, including herpes simplex virus, influenza virus, measles virus, mumps virus, and HIV by selectively inhibiting the penetration of the virus into host cells. Its antiviral effect60 depends on the retention of its molecular conformation by chelating calcium ions with sulfate groups.In 1998,Ayehunie et al. investigated an aqueous extract of the blue-green algae, S. platensis, and found that it inhibited HIV-1 replication in human T-cell lines, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and Langerhans cells (LC). The 50% effective concentration (EC50) of the extract for reducing HIV-1 production in PBMCs ranged between 0.3 and 1.2 µg/mL, while the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of algae extract for PBMC growth ranged between 0.8 and 3.1 mg/mL. HIV-1 contagion was directly inactivated when the algae extract was preincubated with virus before it was added to human T-cell lines or other cells.ANTICANCER EFFECTS OF PHYCOMAXPhycomax is a natural dietary supplement dedicated to assisting individuals who are undergoing cancer therapies including chemotherapy and radiation. Besides, it also has cancer fighting and cancer preventive attributes of its own. The natural microalgae and turmeric result in this specialized anticancer dietary supplement that is a promising support in cancer fight. Phycomax may be used to prepare for and ease negative symptoms during treatment as well as help the body revive and rejuvenate post treatment.Phycomax is naturally designed to meet the unique needs of cancer prevention attributes and is being presented with the essential levels of purity and consistency. Zero toxicity and accomplish safety profiles of this wonder molecule, make it a choice of health-conscious individuals as well as cancer fighting subjects without any hesitation.Benefits of Phycomax for Cancer Support:Inhibits Tumor Cell Proliferation; Indunces Tumor Cell Differentiation; Induces Tumor Invasion; Antimetastatic; Activates Anti-inflammatory Modulators; Anti-Oxidant Capacity; Induces Phase-II Enzymes; Inactivates Phase-I Enzymes; Hepatoprotective; Neuroprotective; Adjuvant Cancer therapySpirulina is one of the richest natural sources of ß-carotene and phycocyanin. Since both ß-carotene and phycocyanin exhibit anticancer activity, Spirulina has also been claimed to be a potent cancer-fighting phytonutrient. Spirulina not only has antioxidant and immune-enhancing effects but also has anticancer properties that have been demonstrated in numerous studies of laboratory animals by preventing the development of experimentally produced cancers. The administration of phycocyanin. Spirulina in Human Nutrition and Health to mice with liver cancer markedly increased their survival rate, perhaps because of the powerful antioxidant activity of phycocyanin, which prevented cancer and reduced DNA damage that is caused by free radicals. Subhashini et al. (2004)67 revealed that molecular mechanisms in C-phycocyanin induced apoptosis in human chronic myeloid leukemia cell line-K562. They observed a substantial decline (49%) in the proliferation of myeloid leukemia cell upon treatment with phycocyanin (50 µM) for 48 h. C-Phycocyanin induced apoptosis in K562 cells by the following mechanism; the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol, (2) the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and (3) the down regulation of Bcl-2. Phycocyanin induced apoptotic death in histiocytic tumor AK-5 cells, which process is inhibited by Bcl-2 expression through the regulation of the generation of free radicals.Phycocyanin, a natural product, may therefore be a chemotherapeutic agent based on its apoptotic activity against tumor cells. The hematopoietic function of Spirulina is very important to its anticancer effect, which increases the population of immune cells, and thereby immunoboosts natural resistance against cancer, and other diseases.53–55,68 Mishima et al. (1998)65 studied the inhibition of tumor invasion and metastasis by calcium spirulan (Ca-SP), a novel sulfated polysaccharide that is derived from Spirulina.68 Hirahashi et al. (2004)57 elucidated a possible mechanism by which Spirulina activates the human innate immune system.Spirulina promotes the production of interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) as well as NK cells when a hot water extract of S. platensis was orally administered. In other experimental animal studies, when extracts of Spirulina were injected directly into cancerous tumors, the tumor stopped growing.66 One human study involved individuals who had oral leukoplakia, a condition of the mouth that normally develops into cancer if it is untreated. The oral intake of Spirulina for 1 year prevented the progression of cancer in 45% of the study participants. More clinical investigations of humans must be conducted to verify the exact anticancer effects of Spirulina.Apart from the positive effects of Spirulina on health discussed above (and summarized in Figure 6.3), Spirulina has potential neutraceutical and pharmaceutical characteristics, including hepatoprotective effects. Alcohol-medicated liver injury has been linked to oxidative stress that is caused by the production of ROI. Apoptotic cells can be observed in animal models with acute alcohol intoxication following glutathione depletion. Antioxidants reduce the rate of apoptosis in experimental animals.69,70 A study conducted by our group demonstrated that an aqueous extract of Spirulina significantly (p < .01) inhibits the proliferation of HepG2 and HSC, perhaps because of its antioxidative activity.PHYCOCYANIN, A MAJOR ANTIOXIDANT CONSTITUENT OF SPIRULINAAs per studies phycocyanin inhibits oxidative modification of plasma proteins and aromatic amino acid residues. Scavenging of oxygen radicals by bilirubin has been shown to protect serum albumin as well as other biological targets. Similarly phycocyanin inhibits the reactive oxygen species generation as well as scavenges them in the variety of test systems and displays a powerful anti-oxidant activity.RECOMMENDED DOSAGE: ONE(1) CAPSULE TWICE A DAY IN BETWEEN MEALS. OR AS SUGGESTED BY A PHYSICIAN/DOCTOR. PLEASE GIVE A GAP OF 15 DAYS AFTER EVERY 3 MONTHS OF CONSUMPTION FOR BETTER RESULTS.WARNINGS: KEEP THE PRODUCT OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN. DO NOT EXCEED RECOMMENDED DOSAGE. PREGNANT OR NURSING MOTHERS, CHILDREN UNDER THE AGE OF 18 YRS AND INDIVIDUALS WITH A KNOWN MEDICAL CONDITION SHOULD CONSULT A PHYSICIAN/DOCTOR BEFORE USIONG THIS OR ANY DIETARY SUPPLEMENT. DO NOT USE IF SAFTY SEAL IS DAMAGED OR MISSING.THIS IS NOT A SUBSTITUTE TO YOUR ONGOING MEDICATION, KINDLY KEEP TAKING YOU MEDICATION.STORAGE: Store at a temperature not exceeding 25 degrees, protect from heat & moisture. KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN.SHELF LIFE: Best before 24 months from the date of manufacture.Manufactured By: M/s Delhi Nutraceuticals Private Limited 127/7 Sector 7, IMT Manesar, Manesar, Gurgaon, Haryana 122001, INDIAReferences:Nutrition Rehabilitation of HIV-Infected and HIV-egative Undernourished Children Utilizing Spirulina Jacques Simpore a, b Frederic Zongo a Fatoumata Kabore a Deleli Dansou aAugustin Bere a Jean-Baptiste Nikiema a Salvatore Pignatelli b Daniela M. Biondi c Giuseppe Ruberto c Salvatore Musumeci d, e Ann Nutr Metab 2005;49:373–380 DOI: 10.1159/000088889Impact of daily supplementation of Spirulina platensis on the immune system of naïve HIV-1 patients in Cameroon: a 12-months single blind, randomized, ulticenter trial Marthe-Elise Ngo-Matip1, Constant Anatole Pieme2*, Marcel Azabji-Kenfack2, Bruno Moukette Moukette1, Emmanuel Korosky3, Philippe Stefanini4, Jeanne Yonkeu Ngogang2 and Carl Moses Mbofung1Ayehunie, S. et al., Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by an aqueous extract of Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis), J. Acquir. Immune. Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol., 18, 7, 1998.Ayehunie, S., Belay, A., Baba, T.W., Ruprecht, R. M. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by an aqueous extract of Spirulina platensis(Arthrospira platensis), J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol, 18(1), 7, 1998.Gustafson, K.R. et al., AIDS-Antiviral sulfolipids from cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 81, 1254, 1989.Manoj et al., 1992 In vitro The alcohol extract of Spirulina inhibited lipid peroxidation more significantly than the chemical antioxidants like alpha-tocopherol, BHA, and beta-carotene.Water extract showed more antioxidant activity than gallic acid and chlorogenic acid.Zhi gang et al., 1997 In vitro Two fractions of hot water extracts showed marked scavenging of hydroxyl radical (the highly reactive oxygen radical); one of the fractions had significant activity in scavenging lipid radicals at low concentrations.Miranda et al., 1998 In vitro Peroxidation of rat brain homogenate was inhibited by almost 95% with 0.5 mg of the methanolic extract. The IC50 of the extract in this system was found to be 180 mcg.Romay et al., 1998 In vitro Phycocyanin was able to scavenge hydroxyl (IC50 = 0.91 mg/mL) and alkoxyl (IC50 = 0.76 µg/mL) radicals. It also inhibited liver microsomal lipid peroxidation (IC50 = 12 mg/mL).Romay et al., 2000 In vitro Phycocyanin inhibited 2,2_-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH), a free radical generator induced human erythrocyte haemolysis in the same way as trolox and ascorbic acid, two well-known antioxidants. On the basis of the values of IC50 phycocyanin was found to be 16 times more efficient as antioxidant than trolox and about 20 times more efficient than ascorbic acid.Hirata et al., 2000 In vitro The antioxidant activity of phycocyanobilin (a component of phycocyanin) was greater than that of alpha-tocopherol, zeaxanthin, and caffeic acid on the molar basis.Bhat and Madyastha, 2000 In vitro Phycocyanin showed a potent peroxyl radical scavenger capacity with a rate constant ratio of 1.54 compared to 3.5 for uric acid (a known peroxyl radical scavenger).Rimbau et al., 1999 Animal (Rats) Oral administration of c-phycocyanin (100 mg/kg) in rats prevented kainic acid induced behavioral and glial reactivity in the rat hippocampus crossing the hematoencepphalic barrier. Authors postulate potential use of phycocyanin in the treatment of neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease induced by oxidative stress-induced neuronal injury.