Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease, that is caused by the bite of female Anopheles mosquito transmitting Plasmodium parasite.

The parasite enters the bloodstream and stays in dormant condition inside the liver. When the parasite matures it leaves the liver and starts infecting blood cells exhibiting symptoms related to malarial fever.

When an uninfected mosquito bites an infected person, it will become infected and can spread malarial parasites to other individuals through bite.

The symptoms of malaria may occur within 10-30 days following the infection. However, in some cases, symptoms may take months to show up.

Transmission may also occur through blood transfusions, sharing of needles, and infection transfer from pregnant mothers to unborn children. Children, infants, travelers, and African and Asians ethnicities are at higher risk of developing malaria.

The signs mimic flu like symptoms including which includes; chills and high fever, sweating, headache, nausea and vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhoea, anemia, muscle cramps, blood in stool, tiredness, and breathing troubles.

The signs can become complex in severe form of malaria which may also show evidence of dysfunction of vital organs. This type of malaria can be fatal if not treated on time.

Treatment Options

Currently there are no vaccines available to prevent malaria, but early diagnosis can prevent and treat it. Certain medications mostly Chloroquine is given based on plasmodium type to eradicate it from the bloodstream.

Prevention

Stay in well screened areas, avoid sleeping outside where mosquitoes survive.

Use mosquito repellant.

Cover body using long sleeves, shirts and pants.

Apply insect repellant cream on hands, feet, neck and face.

Stay in well netted rooms covering all the windows with nets and use bedded nets.