Lung cancer or lung carcinoma is a type of cancer that occurs in the lungs and it affects both men and women. It is one among the leading causes of cancer-based mortalities in India and it commonly occurs in elders but can also affect younger people. Lung cancers can be both malignant and non-malignant.

Ideally, the signs are not visible in the early stages and may appear only at advanced levels. These signs may include, persistent coughing, blood while coughing, pain in chest, roughness, sudden weight loss, pain in bones, headache, wheezing, fatigue and tiredness, loss of appetite.

In some cases, lung cancer may also cause hormonal issues causing symptoms like confusion, seizures, increased blood sugar, nausea, vomiting, increased blood pressure and muscle weakness.

Smokers are at high risk of lung cancer as 90 per cent of the cases are caused due to smoking. Smoking damages lung tissues and continuous exposure to smoke makes it difficult for the body to automatically repair damaged tissues.

These damaged cells then undergo abnormal changes increasing the risk of developing cancer. Heavy smoking is linked to small-cell lung cancer while radiation exposure, and breathing hazardous chemicals are other contributing factors.

Age, family history, personal habits, previous radiation therapy, air pollution, lung diseases are the associated risk factors.

Treatment:

Treatment options vary from person to person, including surgery, chemotherapy radiation therapy, and immunotherapy. However, it is suggested to take precautions like adopting a healthy lifestyle and avoid smoking to prevent lung cancer.