A heart valve disease is a condition where heart valve’s fail to open and close properly. This can happen in one or more valves of the heart. The four valves regulate the blood flow and this condition disrupts the normal flow of blood in the body.

In some people, the symptoms may not be visible for a long duration of time. For others the signs and symptoms may include a heart murmur i.e. abnormal heartbeat, exhaustion, shortness of breath, dizziness, fainting, coughing, chest pain, irregular heartbeats and sudden weight gain.  

Heart valve disease can be congenital i.e. a birth defect or may develop at a later stage in life. The causes behind this condition are mostly unknown.

However, some factors may result in valvular defects.

Rheumatoid Fever:

A bacterial infection which mostly affects children but can cause later stage heart valve damage.  Symptoms may remain unnoticed for 2 to 3 decades.

Endocarditis:

A condition in which bacterial infection targets the heart valves, may result in leaky or scarred valves.

Other conditions such as heart attack, cardiomyopathy, STDs, hypertension etc. can damage heart valves.

Treatment:

The treatment options vary as per the complexity of the condition. Based on symptoms, medication such as vasodilators, beta blockers, and ACE inhibitors may be prescribed. In complex cases, heart valves are repaired through surgical methods.