Ewing’s sarcoma is a rare type of cancerous condition where the proliferation of cancer cells usually occurs in the bones or the soft tissues around the bones such as the cartilage and the nerves.

Although Ewing’s sarcoma mostly begins in the leg bones and the pelvis region, it can occur in any bone. It is chiefly diagnosed in children and teenagers, but even older people can have it. Despite the fact, that just like other cancerous conditions, Ewing’s sarcoma isn’t preventable, the good news is that early prognosis makes this condition treatable with even possibility of a full recovery.

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Ewings Sarcoma


Ewing’s sarcoma can chiefly be categorised into three types depending upon the spread of the cancer cells:

Localized Ewing’s Sarcoma: In this type, cancer has not spread to other areas of the body

Metastatic Ewing’s Sarcoma: The cancer cells here have spread to the lungs or other places in the body

Recurrent Ewing’s Sarcoma: The cancer cells in the third type do not respond to the treatment and are usually recurrent (i.e., cancer returns after a full course of treatment)


Just like any other form of cancer, the exact cause of Ewing’s Sarcoma is yet unknown, but it usually happens when the genetic instructions within a healthy bone cell mutate or change causing the bone cells to start dividing to form newer ones without any requirement. This abnormal and out-of-control growth of the bone cells keeps piling up to form tumorous structures that can invade and destroy healthy body tissue and even spread onto other parts of the body. In the case of Ewing’s sarcoma, the DNA mutation most often affects a gene called EWSR1.

Also Read: Bone Metastasis, Sign of Cancer In Advanced Stage

Risk Factors

Some causative factors that increase the chances of Ewing’s Sarcoma include:

Age: More commonly seen in children and teens who have a sudden growth spurt

Gender: Noticed more often in males than in females

Ethnicity: The incidence of Ewing’s sarcoma is more in people of European ancestry than in African and East Asian ancestry


The common characteristic signs and symptoms of Ewing’s sarcoma include:

  • Pain, swelling or tenderness near the affected area
  • Lumps near the skin’s surface that may feel warm and soft to the touch
  • Numbness in the affected area
  • Limping because your legs hurt
  • Unexplained fatigue
  • Fever with no known cause
  • Bone pain
  • Sudden loss of weight
  • Sudden breakage of bones without cause
  • Paralysis or loss of bladder control if the tumour is near the spine

Diagnosis And Treatment

On noticing or recognizing any of the above-mentioned signs and symptoms, do consult a doctor right away to get it analysed as early as possible. The doctor usually does a thorough physical examination to look for lumps and swelling near the larger bones and acknowledges the past medical history. He or she may also conduct some diagnostics including:

  • Imaging tests like X-rays, CT scans, MRIs, bone scans, and PET scans
  • Blood tests
  • Biopsy (needle and surgical method)
  • Bone marrow aspiration


The available treatment options usually depend on the size of the tumour, its location, how much it has spread and the overall health of the patient. Treatment options include:

  • Chemotherapy
  • Surgery
  • Radiotherapy
  • Clinical trials