An ECG, abbreviation for Electrocardiogram, is a common diagnostic test that establishes the precise electrical activity occurring in the heart during the moments of cardiac muscle expansion and contraction. This simple, safe and non-invasive diagnostic assay helps determine how well the heart is functioning, detect any possible anomalies promptly, so as to effectively treat the illness and maintain cardiac wellness. It is very useful in identifying if there are any aberrant enlargements in cardiovascular structures, besides spotting signs of a heart attack or coronary artery disease. Since the heart is a crucial organ in the human body for health and survival, it is essential to understand the procedure, results and significance of results of the ECG test.
The Heart And Its Functions:
The human heart measures approximately the dimensions of a clenched fist. It is situated in the front and middle regions of the chest, directly at the back of the breastbone, aligned a little bit towards the left side. It is divided into four chambers – 2 atria or auricles and 2 ventricles, one each on the left and right. The heart is responsible for carrying out numerous key functions in the human system, foremost among them being pumping oxygenated blood to other body parts and taking in deoxygenated blood with impurities, transporting it to the lungs for oxygenation through blood vessels – arteries, veins. It also plays a major role in preserving optimal blood pressure between the walls of the arteries, besides relaying across oxygen, nutrients, hormones to other organs via blood circulation.
The cardiac muscles regulate the movement of the heart as it pumps blood and other substances, through expansion and contraction phases. As the muscle cells transmit signs to one another via electrical signals sent by the sinoatrial node (SA node) in the right atrium, they are dispersed along the heart as impulses. These are eventually recorded from the external surface along different regions of the skin, using an ECG test, in the form of waves plotted on a graph.
Who Requires An ECG Test?
It is generally advised by the physician to undergo an ECG for those patients who are predisposed to contracting heart disease. This encompasses individuals with obesity, a family medical history of cardiovascular ailments, besides those who suffer from diabetes, hypertension, high blood cholesterol levels and people with poor lifestyle habits such as frequent smoking, junk diets and sedentary routines.
Nevertheless, even in people who follow a healthy diet and steer clear of harmful practices of excessive alcohol, tobacco consumption, the doctor recommends an ECG test, when they exhibit symptoms including irregular heartbeats or arrhythmia, chest pain, breathing distress.
What Is The Procedure Of An ECG Test?
Prior to taking the ECG test, there is no need to go on fasting or an empty stomach. However, it is advised to wear comfortable clothing for ease of performing the electrocardiogram assay and also to not apply any oily or greasy creams/lotions on the body since it could interfere with the readings of the test.
The ECG test is performed by a certified doctor, nurse or qualified medical lab personnel in a hospital, clinic or diagnostic centre. Up to 10 electrodes are firmly connected to the chest, arms and legs using adhesive tapes and gels. These capture the electrical impulses emitted from the heart as it is pumping blood, expanding and contracting through cardiac muscles, which are documented in an electrocardiograph. An electrocardiograph is the outcome of an ECG test, which is in the form of a graph of voltage versus time, implying electric activities of the heart. Once the test is over, the electrodes are detached from the body and the person can resume normal activity, as the assay is non-invasive and painless.
The ECG test is usually performed at rest, when the person is lying down on a flat even surface without moving, known as Resting ECG. However, to evaluate the reasons behind heart disease in patients, ECG is done while the individual is moving with moderate force on a treadmill, referred to as Exercise Stress Test (EST) or simply as Stress Test.
Possible Risks Associated With The ECG Test:
There are generally no major risks post taking the ECG test. The diagnostic protocol is entirely safe, as it does not pass on any electric signals to the body.
Yet, some people might experience allergic reactions to the gel/adhesive glues in the electrodes owing to hypersensitivity, which results in reddening of the skin in the vicinities where the probes were fastened. This does not trigger any grave complications and usually subsides in a day or two upon applying soothing lotions in affected portions of the skin.
What Is The Significance Of ECG Test Results For Heart Health?
The results of an ECG test are obtained immediately after gauging heart muscle activity via the electrodes, which is presented as a graph known as an electrocardiograph. A heart rate of 60 to 100 beats per minute with a regular rhythm i.e. the period between expansion and contraction and usual conduction patterns is considered to be consistent, normal and indicates a healthy heart.
Yet, when abnormal heart rate or rhythms are recognised in an ECG, it implies heart concerns including unusual blood flow to the heart known as ischemia, heart attack in which the heart stops beating for a period, aside from cardiovascular ailments such as atherosclerosis, hypertension and hypotension i.e. low BP.
Additionally, even in patients with pre-existing cardiac conditions who are undergoing professional medical treatment, ECG tests are beneficial in determining heart activity. These comprise instances of monitoring the working of an artificial pacemaker, checking the efficacy of treatment for coronary artery disease, ensuring the size and positioning of the four chambers of the heart is normal and visualizing any abnormal inflammation in cardiac assemblies in patients.