Fibroid cysts are non-cancerous tumor growths found inside or outside the uterus. Also known as fibroid myomas, leiomyomas or fibromas, these cysts develop from connective tissues or smooth muscle.
Fibroid tumors largely affect women of reproductive age and in few cases may occur during pregnancy. However, only cysts that are large enough, can be detected during diagnosis and examination.
The reasons behind developing fibroid cysts are unknown yet, but they can be influenced by certain underlying conditions. Estrogen and progesterone hormones are responsible for the regeneration of uterine lining during menstrual cycles and may trigger the growth of cysts.
In few cases, it could be genetical. Pregnancy increases the development and growth of fibroids due to increased estrogen and progesterone hormones levels in the body.
Age, ethnicity, and body weight are the common risk factors behind developing fibroid cysts.
Many women don’t feel any symptoms at all. However, few signs include prolonged periods, abnormal bleeding during menstruation, pelvic pain, urge to urinate frequently, lower back pain, increased cramps during periods and swollen abdomen.
The treatment is given as per age of the patient, size of the cyst, and overall health conditions. Medications like gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist, birth control pills, ibuprofen, and anti-inflammatory painkillers are prescribed. Diagnosis is done with the help of intrauterine device (IUD) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Large or multiple cysts may be removed through surgeries, called as myomectomy.